Setting up a HTTPS web server is not a trivial undertaking. The choice of cipher suites which the server can be configured to support allows for a great number of choices. I have come across “best practices” guides on the internet which a practitioner can use to decide which SSL ciphers to allow. There are also several possibilities to test a HTTPS webserver for vulnerabilities and “compliance” to best practices. Eventhough i have been working with these SSL concepts for many years – i realized that i did not know the following:
Is the choice of SSL cipher suite ( chosen during the SSL handshake ) affected / influenced by the type of key used for the server certificate?
There are typically several possibilities to choose for the public/private keypair used when requesting a SSL server certificate from a commercial CA. Generally, either an RSA or a DSA key is used, but other types exist – like ECDSA. Does the TLS cipher suite negotiated in the SSL handshake limited by the type of the server’s keypair?
In a nutshell, the answer is YES, but the reasons are fairly complex. The TLS handshake starts with a client indicating with the HelloClient record, a list of ciphers which it supports to the server. This takes place even before the client knows what kind of certificate the server has and what ciphers the server is going to offer. The server replies with the HelloServer record, indicating the “chosen” cipher suite. If the client and server don’t have some overlapping set of ciphers the handshake will not complete successfully. Taking the description of the SSL handshake for the AES128-SHA cipher suite from this article on how to setup SSL with Perfect forward secrecy, it states that the pre-master secret is communicated from the client to the server by encrypting it with the public key of the server ( so that only the server with the private key can decrypt ). This functioning is true for RSA public/private keypairs which support encryption. Taking a closer look at the suite using the
openssl ciphers -v gives more insight into how the cipher suite is “composed”.
$ openssl ciphers -v cipherlist AES256-SHA:AES128-SHA
AES256-SHA SSLv3 Kx=RSA Au=RSA Enc=AES(256) Mac=SHA1
AES128-SHA SSLv3 Kx=RSA Au=RSA Enc=AES(128) Mac=SHA1
The “Kx=RSA” indicates that RSA is the key exchange mechanism and “Au=RSA” indicates that RSA is the authentication mechanism. It is the use of RSA as the key exchange mechanism which limits the cipher suite’s use to servers with SSL certificate containing RSA public key. The cipher suites based on RSA key exchange can be listed with
openssl ciphers -v cipherlist kRSA.
So what is the effect of server key choice on PFS cipher suites, like ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA:DHE-RSA-AES128-SHA:EDH-DSS-DES-CBC3-SHA. From
$ openssl ciphers -v cipherlist 'kEDH:!ADH'
DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA256 TLSv1.2 Kx=DH Au=RSA Enc=AES(256) Mac=SHA256
DHE-DSS-AES256-SHA256 TLSv1.2 Kx=DH Au=DSS Enc=AES(256) Mac=SHA256
$ openssl ciphers -v | grep EDH
EDH-RSA-DES-CBC3-SHA SSLv3 Kx=DH Au=RSA Enc=3DES(168) Mac=SHA1
EDH-DSS-DES-CBC3-SHA SSLv3 Kx=DH Au=DSS Enc=3DES(168) Mac=SHA1
it would seem that most EDH and DHE suites work with both RSA and DSS server keys.
$ openssl ciphers -v cipherlist ECDH | grep ECDHE
ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384 TLSv1.2 Kx=ECDH Au=RSA Enc=AESGCM(256) Mac=AEAD
ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384 TLSv1.2 Kx=ECDH Au=ECDSA Enc=AESGCM(256) Mac=AEAD
the EC cipher suites work with RSA and ECDSA server keys.
It would seem from the overall support of different cipher suites – RSA server keys are most versatile. RSA server keys work with RSA, ECDH, and DH key exchange mechanisms, where DSS keys are lacking the support of EC in the openssl 1.0 currently.
Now although the server key type does influence the cipher suites which can be used during TLS handshake, the Client Authentication is “orthogonal” to the establishment of a secure session. The client authentication just relies on the client signing some data exchanged in the handshake with the client’s private key and the server checking the signature against the client’s public key. This means that HTTPS clientAuthentication can use any type of client key, irrespective of the server’s key type ( as long as the server can check the client’s signatures ).
Don’t forget you can test a running server’s TLS handshake anytime with the openssl command
openssl s_client -tls1 -cipher ECDH -connect ipaddress